Research at Quincy Bioscience
Every seven seconds in the United States another member of the baby boom generation turns 65. As the baby boomer population has moved through the various stages of their lives they have been responsible for significant societal changes. Not surprisingly, as the baby boomer generation has gotten older, they have become increasingly concerned about healthy aging and supporting the changes that are often thought to occur with advancing age.
The experts at Quincy Bioscience conduct research as well as partner with academic laboratories and research institutions to look for innovative strategies to support cognitive functions and address associated with aging.
Apoaequorin originally comes from a species of jellyfish called Aequorea victoria — a bioluminescent organism with one of the simplest nervous systems. Quincy Bioscience is the first to utilize apoaequorin as a tool in the support of the brain in the human body.*
Effects of a Supplement Containing Apoaequorin on Verbal Learning in Older Adults in the Community
Madison Memory Study
The study protocol builds upon the evidence in previous pilot studies which demonstrated that apoaequorin improved cognitive function as measured by participant reported outcomes. The technology which MMS uses to measure cognitive changes in participants is a computer based assessment using software developed by CogState Ltd., a global provider of cognitive testing products and services. Participants were tested at baseline and then re-assessed four more times during the three month period.
CogState is a neuropsychological battery of computerized cognitive tests that are adaptation of standard neuropsychological tests. CogState’s tests (or tasks) assess a range of cognitive functions, including executive function, spatial problem solving, psychomotor speed, attention, working memory, immediate and delayed and verbal/visual learning. The tasks are a combination of card games, mazes, and lists of common items. Practice sessions are presented before each task in sufficient number to ensure that the participant is aware of the rules for each task.
International Shopping List Task (Learning and Delayed Recall)
The International Shopping List Task is a 12 word, four trial (three learning trials and one recall trial) verbal list learning test. The International Shopping List Test measures neurocognitive function in the area of verbal learning, memory, and immediate and delayed recall.
The ISLT has been shown to have good sensitivity to verbal memory impairment. This and others showed that verbal memory was better in individuals without any cognitive deficit than in individuals with MCI. Subjects were tested at various points during the Madison Memory Study. During each assessment, a list of words was chosen at random by the CogState computer software. The order of items remained consistent across all three learning trials.
Participants were instructed to try to remember as many items on the shopping list as possible. During each learning trial, the computer presented one word every two seconds. The testing proctor read each item as they appeared on the computer screen, which was never visible to the participant. Once all 12 words were presented, the participant was instructed to recall as many words as possible. The list of words appeared on the screen and the proctor checked each word as it was said by the participant. If the participant repeated a word, it was checked again. If the participant said a word that was not on the list another box was checked. When the participant indicated that no more items could be remembered the trial was stopped. The learning task was repeated two more times.
For the International Shopping List Recall Task, participants were asked to recall as many items as possible from the initial list after a delay of approximately 30 minutes. During this delay, other cognitive tests are administered. The number of words correctly recalled after this delay were recorded by the test proctor.
The Groton Maze Learning Task is a measure of immediate and short-term memory for visuospatial information and processing speed. The GMLT is also used as a measure of spatial learning and error monitoring. The participant is shown a grid consisting of a 10 x 10 grid of tiles on a computer screen. Hidden within the grid is a 28-step pathway. To complete the test, participants must follow the hidden pathway through the grid from the top left hand corner to the lower right hand corner. The participant does this by clicking on a particular tile with the computer mouse. The participant is informed of correct or incorrect moves with a particular visual stimulus. A correct move reveals a green check. An incorrect move causes a red cross to appear in the tile. Two different types of incorrect moves are possible. The first relates to selecting a tile that is not part of the hidden pathway. The second category of incorrect moves occurs when participants break a rule. There are two rules. Participants should not move backwards to the previous correct spot. The other rule is that diagonal moves are not permitted.
Participants must return to the last correct tile after any error before continuing to proceed on the hidden pathway. Two different types of errors are recorded. Either the selection of an incorrect tile, which is not part of the hidden pathway. These errors are due either to chance (on the first learning trial) or misremembering the pathway (on subsequent learning trials or during the recall portion of the task. Each participant completes five learning trials. Each trial is timed.
The Groton Maze Recall Test measures the participants’ ability to remember the pathway they had previously uncovered earlier during the learning part of the Groton Maze testing.
One Card Learning
The One Card Learning Task is a measure of Visual Learning and Memory. A playing card is uncovered in the center of the screen. As soon as it is uncovered, participants must indicate whether they have seen the care before in this task. Visual and auditory feedback is provided. If the answer is incorrect, the card goes off to the left and an error noise is provided.
Two Cards Back
The Two Card Back Task is a measure of Visual Working Memory. Participants are required to decide whether a new card presented in the center of the screen for two seconds is the same or different from the card that was presented two cards earlier..The participant selected either a Yes or No key. Visual and Auditory feedback are provided.
Prevagen contains the patented ingredient apoaequorin which has been shown to help improve cognitive function in clinical studies. Apoaequorin was originally discovered in jellyfish and now produced at a cGMP compliant and NSF certified facility in Wisconsin.
Safety studies conducted on the toxicity and allergenicity of apoaequorin show that apoaequorin is safe. In rats following subchronic administration of amounts up to 666.7mg per kilogram of body weight per day Apoaequorin preparation did not result in any mortality.1 This was the maximum dosage that was tested. Researchers concluded,
“The administration of the Apoaequorin preparation did not result in any mortality. There were no further clinical or opthalmological signs, body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, clinical pathology, or histopathological changes attributable to administration of Apoaequorin.”2
Dosing in the study was the equivalent of 4,000 times the recommended daily amount of Prevagen 10mg and 2,000 times the recommended daily amount of Prevagen Extra Strength 20mg. In addition, apoaequorin achieved self-affirmed GRAS status (generally recognized as safe) after an independent panel of expert scientists concluded that apoaequorin is safe for use in food products.
1. Marone, P.A., Bauter, M., Hofman-Hüther, H., and Moran, D. (2013). Safety assessment of Apoaequorin preparation: Subchronic toxicity study in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 57. Research was conducted by Eurofins/Product Safety Labs under the advisement of Soni and Associates, Inc. Funding provided by Quincy Bioscience.
2. Marone, P.A., Bauter, M., Hofman-Hüther, H., and Moran, D. (2013). Toxicologic Evaluation of Apoaequorin. Poster presented at the Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas. Research was conducted by Eurofins/Product Safety Labs under the advisement of Soni and Associates, Inc. Funding provided by Quincy Bioscience.